Particle Loss in Tubing
Particle Loss in Tubing: An Analysis

In discussing acceptable particle losses in tubing, there are many factors. Transportation of particles in tubing between a sample inlet and the optics of particle counters has at many times been at the forefront of discussion regarding the truth of readings. When the validation implications of losses due to various forces are reviewed, the certainty of the result is always in question. So, what are these forces, what are the losses, and what are the acceptable results? This paper addresses these issues to allow for a better understanding of the problem.

contamination control strategy for a fill line
Microbial Monitoring of Compressed Gas

Compressed gases, such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and oxygen, are used for a variety of applications in pharmaceutical manufacturing. These applications, such as aseptic packaging, purging, and filtration, are critical processes monitored for their efficacy. To avoid sampling compressed gases, it has been speculated by some manufacturers that the rapid decompression of a gas when exiting its container kills any microbial contamination. However, it has been shown by multiple studies that microbial survival is not impacted by the typical compression or decompression seen in pharmaceutical process gases.