Through continuous process and equipment advancements, semiconductor manufacturers are approaching 14 nm feature sizes and heading even smaller, while hard-disk drive fly heights are now less than 10 nm. This ever-reducing device feature size requires comparable cleanliness-level improvements in ultrapure water (UPW). UPW purity is especially important with its high use in direct contact with wafers as a final cleaning and rinsing agent in many production steps. Leveraging recent advances in laser optics and detector technology, UPW particle concentration ≥20 nm (≥9 nm for metallic particles) can be effectively monitored.
This paper provides you with a comparison of three models of UPW particle counters to help you identify the best solutions for your application.